ETH 2008 Conference Abstracts

Contemporary Symbols of Personal, Cultural, and National Identity:
Historical and Psychological Perspectives

This document contains the abstracts of the presentations at the Third Multidisciplinary Academic Conference of the International Association for Analytical Psychology (IAAP :, the Second Joint Conference with the International Association for Jungian Studies (IAJS : and co-sponsored by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETH Zurich : The conference was held at the ETH in Zurich from Thursday July 3rd through Saturday July 5th, 2008. Abstracts are listed alphabetically by presenter.



Addison, Ann

The Nature of Form

This paper looks at the notion of sculpture as a personal, cultural and collective symbolic expression of psychoid processes, with particular reference to the work of Henry Moore. Using, as an example, his series of reclining figures, and especially the striking figure designed for the Festival of Britain in 1951, Moore’s sculpture is set in the context of Jung’s idea that every archetypal image is based on an underlying psychoid form which has both physical and spiritual aspects and whose character is capable of endless variation. The interest of the Festival figure lies not only in its place within Moore’s own development, but also in its cultural and historical context as an icon representing an emergence from the austerity of the preceding decade and a celebration of an uneasy post-war peace. Jung’s theory of a psychoid unconscious provides the basis for a review of this.

Keywords : Henry Moore, Jung, archetypal, collective, psychoid, symbol

Biographical note : :

Ann Addison is a Professional member of the SAP in private practice in central London, and a PhD student at Essex University, where her research focusses on the nature and expression of psychoid processes.


Al-Samarrai, Lahab

The Shadow in Islam: a Jungian Analytic Perspective - The Iraqi Civil War as a Reenactment of the Shiite and Sunni Split

This paper looks at the two primary Muslim sects in Iraq, Shiites and Sunnis, and interprets their respective religious similarities and difference from a Jungian perspective to see how they exist as archetypal constructs and elements of collective complexes. Understanding their alternately conflicting and complementary mythologies sheds light on the heart of the sectarian split and the resulting tensions between these two groups. A Jungian perspective suggests a hypothesis to address the mythology at the heart of this fundamental sectarian schism in Islam and suggests how and why it plays out as it does in Iraq. The foundation for this exploration will be a look at a shared myth within the Judeo-Christian tradition and an individual Muslim myth from a Jungian perspective to suggest how they function as collective archetypes. From the Judeo-Christian framework the myth of Cain and Abel and the myth from Islamic history of Hussain, the son of Ali, and his confrontation in Karbala will be discussed. How did the myth of Hussain help us understand the modern psychological effects that may, in combination with the climate of social and political chaos, contribute to sectarian violence in Iraq.

Keywords : Islam, Iraq, Secterian violence, Middle East Violence

Biographical note : :

Lahab Al-Samarrai : Ph.D. Clinical Social Work, Institute for Clinical Social Work, Chicago, IL, Spring, 2009. Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor, Illinois, June 2003. Licensed Professional Counselor, Illinois, December 2000. M.A. Clinical Psychology, Roosevelt University, Chicago, Illinois, January 2000


Ammann, Peter

1. Music and Melancholy: Marsilio Ficino's Archetypal Music Therapy

Melancholy, to the Renaissance Philosopher Ficino (1433–1499), is a state in which the mind is cut off from the supply of spirit. His concept of spirit corresponds to a kind of universal life-energy (libido, in Jungian terms).The spirit of man corresponds to the spirit of the world and receives from it a great deal through the rays of the planets. To attract the ‘spiritual’ influence of a particular planet music is recommended most strongly. Ficino intends to temper the melancholic influence of Saturn. Consequently, his astrological songs are addressed to the compensating benign planets Sun, Jupiter and Venus. In modern terms it is an attempt, consciously, by active imagination, to reestablish the emotional relatedness with the archetypes of the planets from which Saturn has cut oneself off. Ficino’s ideas are related to Jung’s rehabilitation of the feeling-function.

Keywords: melancholy, music, emotion, thinking, Saturn.

2. Healing in Two Worlds

In 2007 I launched in collaboration with Dr. Georg Schönbächler (coordinator of the Collegium Helveticum) a project called “Healing in Two Worlds“. Objective: Exchange of knowledge between African traditional healers in South Africa and Jungian psychotherapists. The project is planned for a research period of at least three years. The first part of the project consisted in participating in the XVII Congress of the International Association for Analytical Psychology in Cape Town August 2007, during which I moderated three panel-workshops entitled “Healing in Two Worlds: African Traditional Healers encounter Jungian Analysts. Similar or different journeys towards healing?“ All three sessions were videotaped. At the IAAP - IAJS conference I presented an interim report on the current project: reflections, conclusions and questions with regard to the workshops at the IAAP congress 2007 including showing excerpts of the video material.

Keywords: African traditional healers, Jungian analysts, similarities, differences, dialogue

Biographical note :

Peter Ammann, Ph.D., studied musicology, history of religion and ethnology and trained at the Jung-Institute Zürich. Now training analyst and lecturer at ISAP Zürich. Practices in Zürich and Geneva. He is also a filmmaker. His documentaries include Spirits of the Rocks, Sandplay with Dora Kalff, Healing in Two Worlds.


Ang, Michael Franz, Rillera-Astudillo, Liezl and Calano, Mark Joseph

Tanging Pinoy: Filipino Archetypes in Pol Medina’s Pugad Baboy Cartoon Series

This paper formulates an understanding of the modern Filipino identity rooted in the notion of narrativity, which is constitutive of Jungian Psychology. Basing upon Jung’s conception of symbols, the authors sought to identify Filipino archetypes implicit in Pol Medina Jr.’s comic strip series, Pugad Baboy. The dichotomy between society and individuality and the social expressions of the archetypes were further discussed by discerning the functioning of symbols in history. It is presupposed that throughout the years, new representations of the Filipino have emerged especially in the form of contemporary art. Consistent with Jung’s contentions, the authors believe that modern symbols and myths can serve as guides to the development of novel ways of relating to the unconscious. As such, the authors believe that Pugad Baboy reveals a lot about Filipinos of today and portrays a plethora of qualities that make Filipinos distinct from others.

Keywords: Archetypes, Filipino identity, culture, history

Biographical note :

Liezl Rillera-Astudillo is an assistant professor of Psychology in the College of Social Sciences, University of the Philippines Baguio.

Mark Joseph Calano is a faculty of the Department of History and Philosophy, College of Social Sciences, University of the Philippines Baguio. He finished his Bachelor of Philosophy, cum laude, MA in Philosophy, cum laude, MA in Religious Studies, magna cum laude, and PhD in Applied Linguistics, magna cum laude from Saint Louis University. He is currently enrolled in his second PhD at the Ateneo de Manila University.

Michael Franz Ang is a faculty of the Department of History and Philosophy, College of Social Sciences, University of the Philippines Baguio. He is a candidate in the Master of Arts in History program of the Ateneo de Manila University. He earned a BA degree in History and Political Science.


Alschuler, Lawrence

Fanaticism: A Psychopolitical Analysis

Fanaticism may belong to the personality profile of terrorists and contribute to inter-ethnic and sectarian strife. C. G. Jung linked fanaticism to repressed doubt about a religious or political "truth." Paulo Freire and Albert Memmi found that the oppressed sometimes pass through a stage of fanaticized consciousness. In this paper I integrate their ideas within a psychopolitical theory of political consciousness. The theory is then applied to three cases of oppressed persons, Native people in Canada and Guatemala, using their personal testimonies as evidence. The paper concludes on the psychopolitical healing of fanatics.

Keywords: Fanaticism, politics, Native people, political consciousness

Biographical note :

Lawrence Alschuler, Ph.D, retired Professor of Political Science. Taught the political economy of the Third World at the Universities of Hawaii, Zurich, Ottawa, and the Catholic University of Argentina. Studied at the C. G. Jung Institute-Zurich for four years in the 1980s. His latest book is The Psychopolitics of Liberation: Political Consciousness from a Jungian Perspective (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007).



Bakhyshova, Sevinj

Khidr as a symbol of an old wise man

In his work Concerning Rebirth, Jung analyse the symbolic figure of Muslim saint Khidr as an archetypal narrative of a psychological process of transformation. Prophet Moses can be explained as an extraverted and mostly logical aspect of wise old man, teacher, giver of the new order of things, the rational thought of God. Khydr is introverted and intuitive aspect, the soul of God possessing gnosis; something unexplainable, but nevertheless, his advises and actions one must follow in order to reach the goal. Khidr represents two sides of individuation cycle – intuition and feeling, whereas Moses symbolises two other sides, thinking and sensation. Their meeting symbolises the last cycle of individuation process, which consist in harmony of logical thinking, knowledge through sensation, ability to deep feeling and intuitional wisdom. This psychological process described in Sufi tradition as finding the truth, the highest self with symbolical Khidr being the path to it.

Keywords: Khidr, Old wise man, Individuation, Sufi

Biographical note :

Sevinj Bakhyshova, PhD in Theory of Literature (1998), UCL student (MA in European Thought)


Baptista, Márcia Loureiro

The Jungian Psychological Types: the possibility of clinical usage in childhood

This paper seeks to explore the use of Carl Gustav Jung's theory of psychological types as an important diagnosis tool, providing guidelines to child treatment as well as to the orientation of child's family and the professionals involved. This work aims at evaluating the importance of Jung's four functions and two attitudes in the process of forming and structuring the conscience throughout the first childhood. The results reveal these psychological attitudes and functions play a fundamental role in the development of the child's ego. Jung's typology is a system allowing the understanding of the clinical data and an accurate psycho diagnosis of the child; moreover, it may work as a tool for the understanding of family dynamics, providing communication and respect towards each member's individuality.

Keywords: typology, child, attitude, functions.

Biographical note :

Márcia Loureiro Baptista, Psychologist, psycho-therapist, concentrated on institutional- clinical psycho-pedagogy, vocational counselling. Master degree at the Catholic University in Clinical Psychology in PUC- SP, Brazil.


Barone-Chapman, Maryann

Ploughing the Dream Field and its Fertile Implications

The purpose of this paper is twofold: 1) Introduce a new way of conceptualizing dreams through the identification of Dream Fields, inspired by active imagination in the counter-transference and association to Aristotle’s Poetics and his definition of tragedy as an imitation of an action rather than the action itself. 2) Demonstrate the path toward procreation at mid-life through assisted reproduction technology (ART) as a Pregnant Pause, a conflict resulting from biotechnology’s alteration of time and processes of identity. Analysis and charting of a patient’s Dream Fields reveals a teleological path toward union and an alchemical distillation. Fear of procreation as the result of such a union presents a double bind; a persecuting maternal object prevents her from becoming a mother as does the temptation to render the masculine unnecessary for procreation and parenting. Adolescence becomes extended as the phase of sexual identity formation and separation from mother comes on the eve of mid-life, increasing the necessity for reproductive technology as the imitation of action.

Key words : Alchemy, Aristotle, Axiom of Maria, Time, Technology, Tragedy

Biographical note : :

Maryann Barone-Chapman, MSc (BAP/Birkbeck), Dip Psych ( is a Candidate with the Association of Jungian Analysts in London. Her clinical interests include themes related to psyche-soma and women’s unconscious use of their bodies. Her paper “The Hunger to Fill an Empty Space: an investigation of primordial affects and meaning making processes in repeated use of ART” won first prize for unpublished research in the joint academic conference of the IAAP/IAJS in Texas in 2005 and was published in the Journal of Analytical Psychology in volume 52:4 in September 2007. She works in private practice a well as with women undergoing fertility treatment at various clinics in London.


Bassil-Morozow, Helena

The Triumph of Individualism and the Failure of Society in the films of Tim Burton

This paper examines the reasons behind Tim Burton’s failure to produce critically and commercially successful films that explore the problems of society rather than the drama of the mental and physical isolation of the male protagonist. Tim Burton’s more successful works – Edward Scissorhands (1990), the Batman films (1989; 1992), Charlie and the Chocolate Factory (2005) – seem to be built around the archetypal pattern which, by his own admission, has much personal significance for him: the lonely, dark, individualistic, misunderstood hero’ challenging the blind, brainless, insensitive crowd. By contrast, Burton’s attempts to go beyond the individualistic theme and explore contemporary political problems, have so far had limited success. The much-criticised Mars Attacks! (1996) and Planet of the Apes (2001) are not built around main character’s struggle introversion, loneliness and creativity, but are about the dark, brutal and inhuman side of society in general, and American society in particular.

Keywords: Tim Burton, Film, Psychological Aspects, C. G. Jung

Biographical note :

Helena Bassil-Morozow is an HE/FE Lecturer based in London. Despite having a PhD in English Literature, she feels that her main research interests lie in the areas of film studies and humanistic education. She is a contributor to Psyche and the Arts: Jungian Approaches to Music, Architecture, Literature, Painting and Film, edited by Susan Rowland (Routledge, 2008).


Becker, Kenneth L.

A Problematic Encounter: C. G. Jung meets Ignatius of Loyola

In his ETH seminar in 1939-1940 C. G. Jung took the Spiritual Exercises of Ignatius of Loyola as a framework and foil for presenting his ideas on a psychotherapeutic treatment of Christianity. Looking at symbols of transformation instead of the process of transformation, he missed the exercises themselves, Ignatius’s Christian version of the individuation process. The paper briefly compares their views of Christianity and their therapeutic goals (for Jung: individuation; for Ignatius: life freed of unconscious bonds to love truly in Christ). Major emphasis is on Ignatius’s “Rules for the Discernment of Spirits” (which Jung did not mention), his therapeutic guidelines intended for the person accompanying the psychodynamic process of the Spiritual Exercises as a therapeutic process of growth on the path to true ego-transcendence and self-actualization.

Keywords: Christianity, feelings, psychotherapy, discernment of spirits, individuation, Spiritual Exercises

Biographical note :[not provided]

Kenneth Becker has master’s degrees from St. Louis University, St. Louis, Missouri, USA, and a doctorate in pastoral theology from the University of Innsbruck, Austria. During and after his twenty-five years as a Jesuit he has studied and worked in the fields of philosophy, theology, psychology, interpersonal communication, pastoral care and languages. In his retirement years now he hopes to spend more time on reflexion and writing.


Bernstein, Shmuel

The Clash of Civilizations as a Clash of Archetypes

Based on historical facts concerning the fall of the Muslim Empire and on psychological understanding derived from the developmental theory of E. Neumann, this paper deals with the Clash of civilizations as a clash of archetypes. As a consequence of a deliberately chosen arrest of development in the 12th Century, the Muslim world has remained in a pre-patriarchal stage of development. Yet, as a community with a patriarchally oriented religious canon, it struggles towards the patriarchal stage, as achieved by the Western Judeo-Christian world. This developmental gap causes the Muslim World to be overwhelmed by the freedom and liberties of the Western World, reacting to them as to the threatening, devouring "World as Mother". The paper contends that the Muslim World is held in the grip of the Ishmael Archetype and acts in a "phallic-warlike" mode as a cultural complex. Threatened by the Islamic terror, the Western World ignores the cultural-developmental gap and operates under the illusion that democracy can be established by force.

Keywords: Archetype; patriarchal; pre-patriarchal; masculine aspect; developmental-gap; cultural-complex

Biographical note : [not provided]


Bernasconi, Maria Anna

The Hungry Little Brook

In a village lived a chaste old woman. Near by her house flowed a little brook, into which the old woman shook her breadcrumbs and leftover food after each meal. She said that after her death, no one would “herd” the brook and so out of sheer hunger it would eat up the whole village. After she died the witches gained power over the brook and transformed it into a torrential creek that flooded the village. The legend is located in the canton Obwalden/CH and refers to a historical event. It is an ancient and up-to-date approach to environmental problems including spiritual dimension and challenges modern beliefs: a brook as an object at everybody’s disposal. In contrast the old woman approaches it as a creature with its own rights and needs. The woman has a totemistic or animistic view of the world.

Keywords: Ecology/Legend/Old Woman/European Folk Belief/Animism

Biographical note :

Maria Anna Bernasconi Graduated: Psychology, Psychopathology, Art History. Diploma at the CG Jung Institute Zurich 2004, thesis: Interpretation of legends of the dead in the Canton Wallis/CH. Certificate of European Graduate School EGS (Leuk/Valais) in Expressive Arts in Therapy, Coaching and Education. Additional training in intermodal expressive art oriented psychotherapy


Betak, Ludvik

Trees Know Everything (A tree and a dreamy tree)

Ludvik Betak and Libuse Hrselova use a tree motif in the way which develops and intensifies possibilities of its "symbolical" use in a new dimension. A common offer to draw a tree is consequently extendend with the instruction to depict "a totally different one that is more dreamy unreal", which in many cases together with the follow-up dialogue and with the imaginative and narrative development provides suprisingly rich diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities. Casuistic extracts were demonstrated at the lecture, presented in German.

Keywords: Tree-motif (psychidiagnostics, psychotherapy), Tree-Test, the Other, dreamy tree, tree symbol, imagination

Biographical note :

Ludvik Betak (1947), Jungian analyst - Individual Membership IAAP (2000). Private practice in Brno, Czech Republic as clinical psychologist and psychotherapist. Ex-chair of CSAP (Czech Society of Analytical Psychology), exchair of CSKIP (Czech Society for Imaginative Psychotherapy), training analyst and supervisor, lecturer, in the past on Masaryk-University of Brno, special lecture of imaginative Psychotherapy in KU Prague. Some petit Publikations about Dreams and Imaginations in the Psychotherapy, Folk Music and Poetry.


Bishop, Paul

The Collective (Social) Unconscious and Mythical Scapegoating: René Girard and C.G. Jung

Taking as its starting-point the notion of envy, this paper outlines the central aspects of René Girard’s theory of mimetic desire. First, in the realm of literature, and then, in the realm of mythology, Girard uncovers what is, in Jungian terms, an archetypal pattern of desire structured around doubles, sustained in a (social) collective unconscious. For Girard, desire is structured by the mechanism of mimesis, but this papers argues that Girard’s argument works best in the context of two central Jungian concepts, the archetype and the collective unconscious; while, in turn, Girard’s thesis substantiates Jung’s intuitions about the identity-constituting function of myth. For the ritual enactment of scapegoating can be understood -- so this paper seeks to demonstrate -- as a process of unconscious identity-formation on the level of the nation, the group, or even the individual. Reading him in conjunction with René Girard, then, reveals how Jung’s theories can be used in the construction of what might best be described as “psycho-anthropology.”

Keywords: Jung; Girard; desire; archetype; unconscious

Biographical note :

Paul Bishop is professor of German at the University of Glasgow, and has published on various topics relating to the intellectual history of analytical psychology, including Jung’s reception of Nietzsche, his use of Kant, and ? most recently ? his relation to German classical aesthetics [ ]. He welcomes enquiries and feedback to the following address: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. .


Bloomfield, Edward

The puer as problem and potential: clinical applications of the archetype of the eternal child

The ‘puer type’ has often been written about in relation to pathological aspects of the stereotypically immature individual (often male) who has failed to grow up, showing a reluctance to engage in the here-and-now commitments and responsibilities of adulthood. The ‘puer type’ is often considered to be in the grip of a stagnating fixation to a ‘mother complex’. The collective image of the puer aeternus (the ‘puer archetype’) can, conversely, be seen to symbolize the psyche’s capacity for spontaneity, renewal and creativity through imagination. I argue that the predicament of the ‘puer type’ results paradoxically from his inability to creatively access and channel those attributes associated with the ‘puer archetype’. I attempt to outline a developmental pathway of a failure in the parental (and social) milieu to respond adequately to the imaginative propensities of the child. I also consider therapeutic implications in thinking about the predicament of the ‘puer type’.

Keywords: Puer Aeternus; Developmental Pathways; Clinical Implications.

Biographical note : [not provided]

Edward Bloomfield is a Clinical Psychologist, working in the National Health Service and in private practice in the United Kingdom. He is a member of the International Association for Jungian Studies and has recently completed a Masters in “Jungian and Post-Jungian Studies” at the University of Essex.


Bright, George

Clinical applications of the psychoid

[Part of the “Jungian Narratives and the Emergent Sciences” panels; see Solomon]

The author reviews Jung's essay 'Synchronicity: an acausal connecting principle' to demonstrate how Jung argues from the existence of synchronistic phenomena to posit his original concept of psychoid unconsciousness. In this concept, Jung suggests that meaning is a priori and has an objective existence rather than being merely a subjective creation of the human mind; that objective meaning exists in matter as well as in mind, and that meaning so conceived is unconscious and ultimately unknowable. He suggests that the psychoid is Jung's unique contribution to hermeneutics, and illustrates how the concept of psychoid unconsciousness might look in practice when applied either to the analytic task or to the quest for religious truth. He suggests that, in the twelve years that have elapsed since his own publication on this subject, growing interest in Jung's formulation of psychoid processes might indicate that Jung's often-misunderstood work is now emerging from the shadow of contemporary scientific, religious and analytic thought.

Keywords: Psychoid, synchronicity, hermeneutics, causality, analytic attitude, religious truth, emergence

Biographical note :

George Bright is a professional member of the Society of Analytical Psychology and a training and supervising analyst of the British Association of Psychotherapists. He works in private practice in London and his papers have been published in French and German journals, as well as in Britain.


Burrell, Patricia M.

Identity and power: Place and displacement

Trauma and dislocation seem to be an integral part of our modern day world, as well as aspects of identity. Although Ang Lee is utilized as an example of one who is aware of the trauma that moulds our identities, the sense of trauma as dislocation is viewed through the Freudian sense of “… cultural dislocation and path toward self-integration.” The trauma, dislocation and sense of identity stemming from early American slavery are addressed as an American cultural complex. Signs of a changing cultural symbol, i.e. “Browning of America”, are addressed. The issue of consciousness about shadow and this specific cultural complex are examined as a path toward healing.

Keywords: culture, cultural complex, shadow, healing

Biographical note :

Patricia Burrell lives and works on an island in the middle of the pacific. It is noted as the longest stretch of flying that any airline does without having land (island or atolls) between the point of departure and arrival. Where she lives is noted as providing a view of how mainland America will be in 20 years. It is a place where the cultures have evolved and there is no one dominant ethnic group.



Cambray, Joe

Breaking Symmetry & Networking the Third

[Part of the “Jungian Narratives and the Emergent Sciences” panels; see Solomon]

Complexity in systems of interacting agents, be they subatomic particles or galaxies, occurs through “breaking” or reducing of a more symmetrical starting state to a less symmetrical one. Biological organisms are highly complex systems and the human psyche is the most complex entity that we know of, thus its origin, development and on-going individuation are fostered by breaks in symmetry that facilitate increasing complexity. To better understand these ideas, an initial presentation of the basic forms of symmetry is given, including applications in human life such as in some aspects of unconscious mate selection. The role of symmetry and the importance of its reduction in Jung's thinking is also discussed, especially with reference to his correspondences with Wolfgang Pauli and then with Victor White. Jung helps Pauli understand some of the deeper significance of symmetry breaking from a psychological view as Pauli was profoundly distressed by experiments indicating the breaking of parity. In Jung's private correspondence with White he shows him a most interesting diagram of the four levels of the self with a clear break in symmetry manifest, but in the published version in Aion, the figure has been re-symmetrized. The significance of this is discussed.

Keywords: symmetry, breaking symmetry, emergence, Pauli, White, Aion

Biographical note :

Joe Cambray, Ph.D. is President-elect of the International Association for Analytical Psychology (IAAP); a faculty member Harvard Medical School, Center for Psychoanalytic Studies; consulting editor of the Journal of Analytical Psychogy; Jungian analyst in private practice in Boston and Providence.


Carson, Fiona and Manchoulas, Sue

The Chronicles of Pope Joan, a film in process

This paper contextualises the twenty minute film, The Pope Joan Cycle, which was made for and screened at this conference. The film draws together art works in 2 and 3D and an epic poem about a female pope who is a creatrix and a protagonist on a psychic journey. This artwork, which is strongly influenced by Jungian ideas, constructs a personal myth. The experiences of depression, recovery, childbirth and early motherhood are explored through the media of art, poetry and music. In the course of her journey, Pope Joan encounters a number of archetypal figures: the Sunbird, the Shadowbird, the Golden Idol, Kali, Eve and Lilith, Inanna and Ereshkigal, and the Mocking Mask.The music was specially devised by Sue Manchoulas.

Keywords: Film, archetypes, creative practice, Pope Joan, music, poetry, myth

Biographical note :

Fiona Carson is a Senior Lecturer in Media and Art History at the University of East London. and a textile artist. Her research interests are in visual culture, psychoanalysis and gender. She co-edited Feminist Visual Culture with Claire Pajaczkowska in 2000.

Sue Manchoulas is a global visual artist and contemporary composer.


Cohen, P.F and Goldstein, W.

The Mythical Object That Says “I Love You, I Hate You, I Control You.”

The aim of this workshop is to relate the treatment of patients to the pressures of social and economic insecurity. Freud noted that anxieties about money and social position are more worrying than those associated with sex. Patients’ feelings about inadequacy are often grounded on a false set of measurements: What do monetary calculations of wealth really mean; have investment and purchasing skills been mastered; and is ‘richness’ to be equated with the happiness? These induced anxieties can lead to devastating fears of abandonment; of being unloved, or for failing to compete in a market driven society. The second issue concerns control, as a measure of deference within the family and the community. Can the pursuit of ‘belonging’ be calibrated in a society that is profoundly atomized? Is there a price for success that is seen as the norm of healthy maturation? Prevailing myths of market ‘success’ and patients’ earning ability too often warp the course of therapeutic practice. Attention must focus on the economic materialism that distorts the self-image of social and individual security in a mass consumption society.

Keywords: Money; Anxieties; Control; Therapeutic Practice

Biographical note :

Dr Phyllis Cohen has published an extensive number of research papers. She is in private practice in New York. She teaches at 3 leading graduate institutes in New York and another in Russia. She chaired the Accreditation Board of the Group Psychoanalytic profession and was recently elected to the national Board of the American Group Therapy Association.

Professor Walter Goldstein teaches in the Economics Dept of New York University. He has written and edited six books and 70 research papers. He was a Fulbright scholar and lectured for IBM executive seminars for 20 years.


Colman, Warren

'Something Wrong with the World': Towards an Analysis of Collective Paranoia

Films such as The Matrix that portray an illusory world manipulated and controlled by secret agents represent a disturbing sense of alienation and paranoid anxiety in the collective zeitgeist. This is manifested in a proliferation of conspiracy theories such as those concerning 9/11, the growth of a surveillance society and the practices of global corporations, especially in the area of health and the natural world. This paper attempts to analyse this state of collective paranoia through focusing on the analysis of a patient who is deeply preoccupied with this view of the world. It is suggested that personal paranoia is generated by an emotional complex of anger, fear and powerlessness, especially in connection with attachment traumas that interfere with the development of self-agency. The loss of power and agency at a social level generated by the impersonal power of a globotechnical world may produce a similar state of mind, thus fostering the growth of collective paranoia.

Keywords: The Matrix, conspiracy theory, attachment trauma, self agency, 9/11, globalisation

Biographical note :

Warren Colman is a training analyst of the Society of Analytical Psychology and Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Analytical Psychology. He lectures, teaches and supervises in England, Russia, Poland and Sweden and has published many papers on diverse topics, including couples and sexuality, the self, the therapeutic process and symbolic imagination. He lives and works in St. Albans where he is in full-time private practice.


Colombo, Raffaella Ada

Persona: The Archetype of Persona in the Technological Era: How the Alternate Reality Games are changing the experience of the Identity, by simulating other worlds

The Archetype of Persona represents the point into which the Ego meets the collectivity. It is the part of us that interfaces with society. It is the projected part of ourselves we prefer other people to see. Now there is the “Alternate Reality Personalization”, or the Alternate Reality Games, an interactive narrative that sometimes uses the real world as a paradigm, and involves multiple elements to build a story influenced by ideas, emotions and feelings of the participants. In “Alternate Reality Personalization” the unconscious is deeply active. As a consequence, the two Persona, in the real life and into ARG, have two different Shadows. The questions are: who is actually living the experience? How does the Ego-consciousness distinguish between real life and a virtual reality? What are the cerebral areas involved with the ethical decision-making? What is the role of PFC and limbic system in the modulation of moral emotions?

Keywords: Persona, Shadow, Alternate Reality Game, Prefrontal Cortex, Moral emotions

Biographical note :

Raffaella Ada Colombo, MD (1988) specialized in psychiatry (1992) and graduated from CG Jung Institute Zurich (2003). Since 1988 she has been working in a Psychiatric Hospital near Milan and in private practice. She is specifically interested in interdisciplinary study of neuroscience and analytical psychology, lecturing on these subjects at ISAPZURICH.


Colverson, John

Anorexia and Societal Shadow

This paper argues that anorexia mirrors an aspect of societal shadow regarding our progressive disconnection from nature over the last circa 4000 years. It is argued that a certain dysfunctional family dynamic, acts as a conduit for societal shadow, effectively electing a child to the anorexic role. An imaginal body is constructed during development which is susceptible to societal factors, and changes with societal norms, this has generated a succession of “cultural shadow” – anorexia being the latest in the series. The paper draws upon Zinkin’s model of the holographic psyche, and Bohm’s concept of an implicate order. If a holographic plate is broken the whole image is presented on each fragment of the plate, because the image is held implicitely on the plate as a whole. In a similar way, it is suggested, that anorexia presents an image which is held implicitly in societal unconscious. It is postulated that the healing auspices of the Self archetype are attempting to shift our societal consciousness through this image, thereby attempting to redress balance through bringing a different archetypal pattern online.

Keywords: Anorexia, societal shadow, holographic, implicate, healing

Biographical note :

John Colverson is currently a candidate on the ‘top up’ training with the Association of Jungian Analysts in London. He is a member of the Association of Group and Individual Psychotherapy (AGIP) in London, and a registered member of the United Kingdom Council for Psychotherapy (UKCP). He is currently working fulltime in private practice.


Connidis, Kristine Arnet

The Varieties of Justice in a Good Society

Can courts use the ideal of ‘Justice’ more effectively to respond to dysfunctional political processes in representative democracies? In addressing this question, a keytheory of Jung’s is illustrated. When an archetypal ideal – such as Justice – enters consciousness, Jung cautioned against the reactions of ‘inflation with the archetype’ and ‘regressive restoration of the persona’, which lead to fanaticism and fundamentalism, and urged ‘critical consciousness’ instead, by bringing all the different psychological functions to bear on the ideal. ‘Restorative Justice’ is often viewed either as a lofty alternative or an irrelevancy to the ‘Adversarial Trial Process’. But the two approaches perform different functions, and need to work together. If facts and reasoned principles are disputed, they are served better by the adversarial process. The resulting judgment is another matter; it must come as close as humanly possible to achieving Justice. If that requires – not Procedural or Compensatory or Punitive Justice, but Social or Political Justice – then the two approaches need to focus their combined authority on the political process, and not shirk from decisively formulating and refining political responsibilities in a representative democracy – based on facts, reasoned principles, and Justice – and forcefully holding politicians to account for them.

Keywords: Consciousness functions, archetype inflation, regressive restoration of persona, restorative justice, adversarial process, Lorenzetti’s frescoes

Biographical note :

Kristine Arnet Connidis (Toronto, Canada): LL.M. (Cantab 1978), Dip. An. Psych. (Zurich 1998), S.J.D. Candidate (Toronto), IAAP Liaison to IAJS.


Connoly, Angela

Daughters of the Devil; Feminine Subjectivity and the Female Vampire

Despite the tendency to see horror as a “boy’s game”, women do in fact consume horror although their viewing strategies and derived pleasures differ considerably from those of male audiences. In particular women prefer vampires with whom they seem to feel a transgressive affinity. Negative images of feminity are more frequent in times of crisis in male subjectivity and may be seen as a response to male anxieties about women’s challenges to patriarchal socio-cultural mores. They can however just as easily be read against the grain as an expression of the sufferings and struggles of real women, pointing the way towards new ways of articulating feminine subjectivity. To illustrate this I will make use of a 1960 Gothic classic by Mario Bava “The Mask of the Demon” reading it against the social tensions around gender roles in Italian society .

Keywords: Female vampires, feminine spectatorship, gender stereotypes, negative anima, Italian horror

Biographical note : [not provided]


Costello, Claire L.

The Early AIDS Crisis: How Religious and Spiritual Identity Helped or Hurt Those Enduring Bereavement: An Empirical Study: A Profound Awakening.

AIDS as initiation brought individuation into daily reality and into the culture. Our AIDS response opened humanity to the potential for a personal, cultural, and global individuation process that awakened gradual change in the cultural unconscious. Retrospective views of the early AIDS crisis illustrate transformation of consciousness, evolved capacity for ethical, compassionate action, and an enriched Weltanschauung. Confrontation with fear, prejudice, stigma, and grief developed ego/Self rapport within individuals, families, healthcare workers; evolved cultural attitude shifts within religious faith communities, cities and nations; and manifested cultural individuation within humanity and civilization. The creation of culturally specific, evidence based global humanitarian initiatives in AIDS prevention, treatment, training, and communication perhaps created differentiated relatedness among nations which may serve us as we face future global human and natural crises. Does our AIDS response illustrate Jung’s vision of the religious world - embracing movement he hoped would arrive to counteract atomic war?

Keywords: AIDS, initiation, compassion, cultural individuation, Weltanschauung

Biographical note :

Claire L. Costello, PhD, RN, CS, psychologist, clinical nurse specialist and advanced candidate in analytic training at San Francisco CG Jung Institute, practices psychotherapy in the Bay Area. Claire has worked creatively in mind/body health for 30 years enjoying innovative roles in adolescent psychiatry, AIDS and oncology homecare, integrative medicine, and cardiac rehabilitation.



Dawson, Terence Richard

Writing, Trauma and Symbols of Identity in Baudelaire's "The Swan"

Ever since the 1970s, critical interest in Baudelaire's "The Swan" has focussed on either the poet's obsession with memory and writing or the relation of his work to his time. This paper seeks to redefine the concern at its heart. It is in three parts. The first explores the poem as a product of active imagination produced by an introverted feeling/intuition type. The second reflects on how personal and archetypal material meet in a sustained meditation on the relation between past and present, alienation and empire, anxiety and yearning, and myth and modernity. And the third redefines the essential concern of the poem as a meditation on the hopeless despair of trauma. The aim is to explore both what a Jungian reading can contribute to the critical tradition surrounding this work and the difficulty of discussing identity in cases of trauma.

Keywords: Baudelaire, "The Swan", Jung, psychological typology, meditation, trauma

Biographical note :

Terence Dawson is an Associate Professor in the Division of English at NTU, Singapore. He is the author of The Effective Protagonist: Scott, Bronte, Eliot, and Wilde (Ashgate 2004) and co-editor, with Polly Young-Eisendrath, of The Cambridge Companion to Jung (CUP 1997; 2nd ed. 2008).


De Faria, Durval Luiz

Images of the anima in the songs of Tom Jobim: “The deserted beaches”

This article is part of a larger project aimed at understanding the images of the anima in the music of Tom Jobim. In this article we have tried to understand the images from only one of the composer’s songs: “The Deserted Beaches”, recorded in 1958. Initially, we discuss the functions of the anima, as they appear in C. G. Jung’s work and that of other authors of analytical psychology. We then consider the music as an expression of the anima and human sensitivity, present since the beginning of human societies. We then present a short overview of the composer Antonio Carlos Jobim, his personality, influences and work. Finally, we try to understand the song “the Deserted Beaches”, concluding that the beach, symbol of an anima of nature, acts like a calling for the subject, as an intermediary in the relationship between his ego and his unconscious and with the feminine. The function of the bridge to the unconscious is understood as a possibility that is always present in the psyche; the beach is always present as a calling for this contact, and depends on the conditions of the ego and consciousness.

Keywords: Jobim; anima; songs

Biographical note :

Durval Luiz de Faria, Phd. Jungian analyst by Jungian Institute of São Paulo. Professor - Faculdade of Psicologia of the PUC-SP – Brasil. Jungian Studies Group


De Paula, Claudio Paixao Anastacio

Brazil, Politicians and Myth: re-evaluating the results of a study on Brazilian identity

This study re-evaluates the findings of a study developed in 2000 which interviewed "opinion makers" from 4 Brazilian state capitals to identify imagetic representations that Brazilians have of themselves and aspects of their "national identity". The original study uses references from Jungian Psychology and the archetypology of the imaginary (DURAND) to enlighten interesting unexpected results: (a) mythologems typical of the imaginary of the Portuguese colonizer; (b) mythologems typical of the medieval imaginary; (c) evidences of a Promethean myth (the idea of knowledge as a liberating element) in contradiction with the prototype of the leisure paradise is used to praise the wonders of the nation and its people. These original findings were analysed in the light of 5 presidential terms (1992-2007) revealing concepts which link 3 different presidents, from 3 different parties and ideologies and confirming the validity of the previous findings and how they are still up to date.

Keywords: National identity; Jungian psychology; Imaginary; Brazil; Political choice; Myth

Biographical note :

Claudio Paixao Anastacio De Paula, doctor in Social Psychology, master in Information Science, clinical psychologist and member of the International Association for Jungian Studies (IAJS). Living in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, he works as Jungian psychotherapist, Supervisor, and Professor of Graduate Studies at Pedro Leopoldo Foundation.


Dourley, John

In the End it All Comes to Nothing; the Basis of Identity in Non-Identity

For Jung the sole valid spirituality for the conscious modern had a lengthy mystical history. "Indeed, he is completely modern only when he has come to the very edge of the world, leaving behind him all that has been discarded and outgrown, and acknowledging that he stands before the nothing out of which All may grow." (CW 10, par. 150). The nothing here understood involved for Jung a regression to the point of ".the original state of identity with God." (CW 6, par. 431). Jung was aware of the history of this experience in the 13th century Beguine tradition and later in Eckhart and Boehme, the two most cite mystics in his work. His appropriation of the apophatic tradition would imply that there is a dimension of the psyche, the nothing, that precedes the archetypal dimension of the unconscious. Access to this nothing could make relative the religious, political and ethnic absolutes that currently threaten the species with a ".universal genocide." (CW 18, par. 1661) to be avoided through "salvation by a symbolic death." The mystical dimension of the psyche contributes to this saving death by corroding all absolute claims in the identification of their common origin in the nothing hopefully toward a heightened mutual appreciation.

Keywords: Nothing, mysticism, identity, absolute

Biographical note :

John Dourley is a Jungian analyst, a graduate of the C.G. Jung Institute, Zurich/Kusnacht. He is professor emeritus with the Religion Department, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada, where he continues to practice after retirement. He has written on Jung and the religious issue and is a Catholic priest with the Oblates of Mary Immaculate.


Dowd, Amanda

Whose Mind am I in? Cultural amnesia and cultural complexity; the Interpenetrating mix-up of migrant experience, trauma, country and the transformation of identity

This paper pivots around the traumatic experience of migration/displacement, the recognition of and relationship with Other, and returns a sense of place to a primary consideration in the analytic setting. Using post-Jungian clinical experience in an Australian post-colonial context as a mode of research, the paper offers a way of thinking about the formation of patterns of mind which takes into consideration an intimate and foundational relationship between psyche and place. The importance of the recognition of trauma in both personal and national founding creation stories is explored along with its role in the emergence and transformation of individual and collective identity. Such a way of thinking sheds light on contemporary identity anxieties, the core issue faced when people migrate from one place to another for both migrant and receiving environment alike. Aspects of the cultural complex as experienced in Australia are also explored.

Keywords: Migration, Displacement, trauma, cultural complex, identity, mind

Biographical note :

Amanda Dowd (ANZSJA, IAAP, IAJS) is a Jungian Analyst and Psychoanalytic Psychotherapist in private practice in Sydney, Australia. She has a particular interest in the relational formation of self, mind, identity and cultural identity and the effects of trauma. Her current work includes an exploration of the traumatic effects of migration/displacement for both individual and culture and the interrelationship between psyche and place.


Driver, Christine

Shadow and Symbol: The Christian symbol of the 'dark son' and the maternal

Starting from Jung’s work on the Trinity and the Quaternity this paper considers the issue of the ‘dark son’ from a psychological perspective. Using clinical material the paper illustrates how the human form of the ‘dark son’ e.g., conflictual and aggressive emotions in relation to mother and father, become split off aspects of the personal self and interrelate and conflate with the collective numinous, symbolic and religious aspects of the Devil/‘dark son’. The paper demonstrates how this results in a debilitating effect on the emerging personality leaving it prone to fears, anxieties and psychotic pockets of experience in relation to a numinous persecutory shadow which has become exaggerated by the impact of Christian/Catholic symbols. In conclusion the paper considers how Jung’s work on the Trinity and Quaternity needs to be revised and developed in the light of the clinical findings.

Keywords: Trinity, Quaternity, Shadow, Catholicism

Biographical note :

Christine Driver is a Professional Member of the SAP. She is Director of Training and Clinical Services at WPF Therapy and in private practice. She has written and co-edited two books on supervision and a number of papers.


Du Toit, Danie, Veldsman, Theo and van Zyl, Deon

The role of individuation in the success of leaders in business organisations

Changes in organisational life have caused an escalating leadership crisis. Many leaders are unable to cope with the growing demands and increased complexity. In this study, it is proposed that the more individuated leader has a better chance to be successful in modern day business organisations than less individuated leaders. Further more, individuation is seen as a more applicable view on personal growth for leaders in Africa than more individualistic approaches. The African concept of “ubuntu”, like individuation, emphasises the individual’s connectedness to his/her group and personal growth takes place with full consideration of the group and ones responsibilities towards the group. From existing literature, the stages of individuation (nurturing; adaptation and integration) were used as framework to identify nine main attributes of leaders who have progressed towards individuation. The attributes were then operationalised into leadership competencies. Derailment and burnout were seen as the final results of failed leadership. A diverse group of senior managers in business organisations in South Africa were asked to tell their leadership stories. The “myths” of their existence, leadership philosophies, stages of individuation, propensity to derail and burnout were then explored by analysing their stories and drawings.

Keywords: Individuation, leadership, derailment, burnout, organisation

Biographical note :

Danie du Toit held various positions in Human Resource Management and Development in business organisations for 20 years. His last positions were: General Manager: Human Resources; Human Resources Manager: Business Units and International Divisions and Group Training Manager. He has a private practice and consults to organisations on leadership development; creativity; career development; and more. Senior Lecturer at the Industrial Psychology department of the North West University, South Africa.

Theo H. Veldsman, Doctorate in Industrial and Organisational Psychology, has extensive research and development, and consulting experience over the past 20 years in organisational contexts. Author of 160 reports/articles covering the abovementioned areas, and the author of a book “Into the People Effectiveness Arena – Navigating between chaos and order” (2002), dealing with pressing people issues; and two book chapters. Part time professor in the Department of Human Resource Management at the University of Johannesburg, South Africa.

Dr Deon van Zyl, former Associate Professor in Psychology at the University of Pretoria, where he worked for 13 years. For the past 19 years, in private practice as a Clinical Psychologist, corporate consultant, mediator and group facilitator. The author of 47 scientific and popular articles; received numerous merit and research awards. A past Chairman of the S A Institute for Clinical Psychology. Resides in Johannesburg, South Africa.



Egger, Brigitte

Psychecology of Energy and Technology: fundamental importance of the symbolic

Our main ecological problems, climate change and biodiversity loss, are linked to our overuse of material energy, itself boosted by overdevelopment of technology. We all want energy, both material and psychic. But the loss of the symbolic and soul dimension brings imbalance between outer and inner world and has destructive effects on both sides: nearly suicidal overuse of material energy and widespread psychic depression. If becoming more conscious - based on symbolic understanding - means gaining free psychic energy, reversely, projecting inner, psychic, needs onto the concrete outer world means draining out psychic energy.

Technology and symbols have in common to allow the transformation of energy. Today technology attracts the whole energy devoted in pre-modern cultures to symbols. Thus greed for material energy and technology disclose a failed attempt to gain psychic energy and an inadequate relationship towards the “divine creative power”. An eminent ethical question.

Keywords: Psychecology, Archetypal ecology, Energy (ecological & psychic), Technology fascination, Technology & symbol, Projection

Biographical note :

Brigitte Egger is a Jungian training analyst with private practice in Zürich. As an ecologist ( she concentrates her research on the psychic and symbolic dimensions of collective issues and works at introducing this dimension into the practical environment protection, especially concerning energy and water.



Falzeder, Ernst

C. G. Jung on the psychology of children and of childhood

The presentation focuses on Jung's views on the psychology of children and of childhood, with special reference to the recently published (in English) seminar he gave on children's dreams.

Keywords: C. G. Jung, psychology of childhood, children’s dreams, seminars

Biographical note :

Ernst Falzeder, Ph.D., psychologist; lecturer at the University of Innsbruck/Austria, senior editor for the Philemon Foundation. Ca. 200 publications on the theory and history of psychoanalysis and analytical psychology; translator of Jung's seminar on children's dreams into English (Princeton University Press, 2008).


Feaster, Scott

Werner Herzog’s “Rescue Dawn”: Crisis, Culture and Creativity.

ABSTRACT. Werner Herzog’s unique vision of America’s secret bombing war in Laos in 1965, “Rescue Dawn” (2007) ought to be read neither as glorifying war nor evading the ethics of war but a symbol of the war in the American soul. As auteur, Herzog explored his personal trauma and worked out the cultural complexes of his boyhood in World War II Germany through contemporary and fellow national, Dieter Dengler, in the 1997 documentary, “Little Dieter Learns to Fly” (1997). He told how Dieter grew up, became a naturalized American, fulfilled his dream to become a Navy pilot, and was the only US pilot who was shot down and escaped during the Viet Nam war. In “Rescue Dawn”, Dieter’s narrative, heightened by the emotion of a Hollywood feature film, becomes a symbol not only of the auteur’s working through complexes but of the spectator who discerns the parallels to the Iraq war.

Keywords: Herzog, auteur, symbol, personal and cultural complexes.

Biographical note :

Scott Feaster teaches English, composition and film at Broward College. His previous writing on film includes two self-published works: “Jung Goes to the Movies: The Puer and Puella Are Alive and Well in Film” (1991), co-authored with Roger Radloff, Jungian Analyst; and “In Search of the Rose: Jung Meets Orson Welles” (1994).


Fidyk, Alexandra

Facing the scapegoat: A Jungian read of a Romani narrative

“Strangers, gods and monsters,” writes Kearney (2003) “represent experiences of extremity which bring us to the edge. They subvert our established categories and challenge us to think again” (p. 3). Through this understanding of “stranger” and “scapegoat,” I consider the European Roma, a people who have been the most discriminated against and yet excessively romanticized (Cooper, 2001), as a group that challenges our way of thinking. A Romani narrative, in particular an identity construction through the suffering of negative inflation, exile and splitting, will be read through a Jungian interpretation of a “scapegoat” complex so that we might better understand how we are split between the conscious and unconscious, familiar and unfamiliar, same and other. And that we are not separate from this “other” but are co-creating and so co-living its identity. It, then, becomes our ethical responsibility to engage in self/group examination so that we become conscious of both our shadow and the other with whom we manifest.

Keywords: Scapegoat, cultural complex, Roma, archetype, ethics

Biographical note :

Alexandra Fidyk, PhD, a psychotherapy graduate of the Jung Institute of Chicago, holds a faculty position in the Department of Depth Psychology at Pacifica Graduate Institute, CA. Interested in interdisciplinary studies, her work attends the realm of ontological splendor, the poetic and the imaginal.


Fleshner, Nathan

The Musical Psyche: The Music Theories of Heinrich Schenker from a Jungian Perspective

This paper provides a brief introduction to the music theories of Heinrich Schenker and demonstrates parallels between the theories of C.G. Jung and Schenker. Some of the common topics that come to the surface in discussions of Schenker and Jung include causation, the Jungian sense of libido (or what Schenker calls Der Tonwille), archetypal structures, individuation (or what Schenker calls transformation), and the bidirectionality of the analytical construct involving both the reduction to the archetypal substructure and the generative reapplication of that structure to the conscious surface. This paper also shows how Schenker’s graphic analyses of music represent the progression of a musical composition from its archetypal form, through fantasy- or dream-like middleground structures, to its fully-developed conscious form. Schenker’s theories of musical structure provide a picture that mirrors Jung’s own acknowledgement of “the fact that music represents the movement, development, and transformation of motifs of the collective unconscious.”

Keywords: Music, Archetype, Individuation, Libido, Analysis

Biographical note :

Nathan Fleshner is a Ph.D. student in Music Theory at the University of Rochester, NY – Eastman School of Music.


Foster, John

Rock’s Second Blossom: The Language of Framing a Cultural Symbol

Linguistic science has answered many questions about human language, but much remains unexplored. One alternative approach would be to consider language from the perspective of its evolutionary significance. If language developed for the purpose of uniting small, socially bound human groups in action within nature, does it not follow that the function of language is to create identities in such a field of action? This was Nietzsche's view of language: Identity creating machine. Are cultural symbols thus framed by construction of inter-subjective identities within groups, as well as with the discourse establishing aspect of the symbol itself? In order to offer one potential answer to this question, this paper will, 1) develop Nietzsche’s understanding of language within Jung’s concept of un-teachable complexes; 2) consider the nature of discourse across two language groups: English and Japanese; 3) explore as example the image of a rock collecting fate in a Japanese garden.

Keywords: Linguistics, Nietzsche, complexes, inter-subjectivity, Japan, rock-garden

Biographical note :

John Foster has been teaching language for twenty years; at university in Tokyo, Japan, and then at private school in Vancouver, Canada. He has recently settled in Kagoshima, Japan, where he is currently working on the following doctoral work: “Language and the Construction of Identity: Depth Psychological Roots in Nietzsche.”


Fredericksen, Don

Arguments for a Jungian Hermeneutic of Suspicion

The hermeneutic of amplification is thought to distinguish the Jungian approach from the Freudian hermeneutic of suspicion, a quality the latter shares with Nietzsche and Marx. In several ways, Jungians might well rethink the need for our own hermeneutic of suspicion. This would have at least three registers of activity: a suspicion directed at the sufficiency of the other three hermeneutics of suspicion, based upon the "fallacy of the self-sufficiency of finitude" (Tillich), a suspicion of the pre-digested nature of images produced by the "military-industrial-entertainment complex" (Codrescu), and a suspicion of our own glibness in the interpretation of the symbolic register. A Jungian hermeneutic of suspicion is distinguished by the fact that it is nested within the on-going experience of truly symbolic life.

Keywords: Hermeneutic of suspicion; hermeneutic of amplification

Biographical note :

Don Fredericksen is professor and director of undergraduate studies in film at Cornell University; he also practices as a Jung-oriented psychotherapist. His recent Jungian publications deal with individual films and filmmakers (e.g., Bergman's Persona, Wajda's Kanal, Fellini's 8½), issues of interpretation, and cultural analysis focused on the problem of living symbolically in a liminal period.



Gardner, Leslie

Emotion as knowing

My proposal is to do an investigation of Jung's use of pathos, a rhetorical term that focuses on the use of emotion to induce action. I will use Answer to Job to focus on this technique. Jung had a profoundly rhetorical view of emotion; his insight reflects on passion's contingency. However, there is a paradox here that parallels the problematic of the individual's relation to the collective. People in different cultures react in unique ways to times of tension. The Stoic eschews tears as ethical vanity in ancient Rome while contemporary Europeans find dry-eyed reaction to personal catastrophe psychopathic. Appreciation of Jung's emotional rhetorical strategies alerts us to the opportunities and anomalies of emotional communication. In Answer to Job he applies his appreciations to individual/cultural history. I will trace a portion of the passional argumentation of that essay.

Keywords: Answer to Job, emotion, pathos, rhetoric

Biographical note :

Leslie Gardner, PhD, from Centre Psychoanalytic Studies, University of Essex 2008. After education in my native US in university literature departments, and postgraduate work at the University of Iowa's International Writer's Workshop, I started up my own literary agency following several years work in a London theatrical agency. Publications in upcoming books and preparation of my thesis for book publication occupy me presently. Presently I am co-chair and treasurer, on the executive committee of IAJS.


Gieser, Suzanne

Is Reality Symbolic? In which way is the Jung-Paula dialogue still relevant today?

The physicist Wolfgang Paula came to the conclusion that "the most important and exceedingly difficult task of our time is to work on the construction of a new idea of reality”. For Paula this included the notion that reality in itself is symbolic. My paper explores what he meant by that and if this is still of relevance today. The concept of symbol became central to the discussions among the physicists that formulated QM in the 1920s. Paula, influenced by Jung's concept of the symbol, came to a tentative conclusion that it is the very fact that reality has (at least) two aspects that makes reality symbolic. In such a two-aspect reality symbols are manifestations of archetypal structuring processes which emerge through human elaboration, i.e. through a specific “language”, they are characterized by their fruitfulness and ability to unite opposites (inclusiveness). Later in life he also speculated about reality as constructed in hierarchical levels of more inclusive symmetries, symmetry-breaking and archetypes as constellating factors behind "emergent" phenomena, ideas that are highly relevant in contemporary cutting edge sciences.

Keywords: Jung-Pauli dialogue, theory of symbols, symmetries, emergence

Biographical note :

Suzanne Gipser, born 1960, has a B.A. in Cultural Studies with emphasis on the History of Religion at the University of Stockholm (1984) and a Ph.D. in the History of Ideas and Science at University of Uppsala (1996), Sweden. Marticulated from the St. Lukas Institute of psychotherapy (existential direction). Works as Researcher, Author, freelance lecturer, counsellor and therapist. Member of the board of the CG Jung foundation in Sweden


Glock, Michael

Cultural Futuristics: Bringing Consciousness to Cultural Complexes and Soul to Scenario Planning

Futures studies exists to imagine how today¹s realities produce the future. Analyzing sources, patterns, and causes of change and stability from multiple interdisciplinary perspectives, futurists seek to develop insight, foresight, of alternative tomorrows. They describe these alternative future conditions by writing multiple scenarios that describe possible, probable and preferable social, ecological and political futures. Cultural futuristics promotes trans-disciplinary dialog and enables clinical findings to be implemented into scenarios. These psychologically orientated scenarios re-turn the voice of the silenced cultural soul to the future in an attempt to mitigate the potential future impact of existing, yet unexamined and unexploded cultural complexes. Informed by the unconscious constellated opposites, shadows and archetypal movements within cultural events, cultural futuristics attempts to mitigate and avert future catastrophes by bringing consciousness to cultural complexes and soul to scenario planning. This effort enlightens researchers to the promise, and/or devastating psychological impact and teleological dimensions within significant critical events.

Keywords: Cultural Futuristics, Futures Studies, Cultural complexes, significant cultural events, scenario planning

Biographical note :

Michael Glock Ph.D. Born in Wellington New Zealand, the son of a German father and a Russian mother. To ameliorate and mitigate the tremendous transformations taking place, environmentally, culturally and psychologically in the world today requires creative ideas and imagination. Having vision, being a futurist, and designing for it is Michael’s specific creative, psychological, and tactical advantage.


Goodchild, Veronica

Crop Circles and UFOs: Some Reflections on Jung's Theory of Continuing Creation

This paper explores Jung's later creative work concerning the unfolding of a new paradigm of reality. He notes that as physics penetrates into the mysteries of sub-atomic matter and depth psychology explores the regions of consciousness beyond the collective psyche, that a world of subtle bodies comes alive again. I suggest that crop circles, UFOs, near-death experiences and other paranormal phenomena might be expressions of this subtle, in-between, imaginal world, and that they could be both symptoms and signatures of an emerging consciousness as we move from Pisces to Aquarius. I also describe some of the unique psychological features of such experiences and how often they help the experiencer move from a logos-centered life to an eros, or heart-centered world.

Keywords: Subtle bodies, UFOs, Crop Circles, psychoid archetype, continuing creation, new paradigm

Biographical note :

Veronica Goodchild, PhD, is a professor of Jungian Psychology at Pacifica Graduate Institute, and a psychotherapist in private practice. She is the author of Eros and Chaos (Nicolas-Hays, 2001) and a new forthcoming book: The Songlines of the Soul: A New Vision for a New Century that explores in detail many of the points of her lecture.


Goss, Phil

Nigredo of the symbol? Waiting for something new in ‘the empty space’

The apparent withering away, or even ‘death’, of collective religious, political and social symbols in western society, carries hallmarks of depthlessness and the individualised making of meaning which may suggest this nigredo is permanent. Peter Brook’s notion of The Empty Space is taken beyond the realm of theatre to suggest the space left by the dead symbol can be utilised psychologically to provide the intuitive seed for something new to emerge. The shape of the container which previously held the collective symbol is highlighted, holding out the possibility this is where the meaning held by the symbol has now ‘gone’. The space left may be where a mingling of semiotic elements provides the seeds for something new. Clinical examples of the meaning we find in shape and form, and implications for the evolution of historically significant symbols, facilitate a tentative new formulation for the collective symbolic life.

Keywords: Nigredo, symbol, container, semiotic, empty space

Biographical note :

Phil Goss is a Jungian Analyst in private practice in the north of England. He is also senior lecturer counselling & psychotherapy, University of Central Lancashire. He has contributed various chapters to edited collections of Jungian papers such as 'Learning Difficulties, Shadow of the education system?' in Education and Imagination (edited Jones R. et al, 2008, Routledge) and is working on a book on gender from a post-Jungian perspective, also for Routledge.


Grgic, Matejka

The role of “language” in personal, cultural, and national identities: The Jungian perspective

The language could not be investigated only from the point of view of the linguistics. Other sciences have always contributed to the global understanding of language. Jung investigated language as a complex structure of symbols (verbal and non-verbal). This idea was deeply different from the definition of language as a system of signs (Saussure). As a symbolic structure, language has to be investigated on the archetypical level – as logos in the Neoplatonic sense. This theory is useful and applicable in semiotics (in sub-fields theory of symbols and of myth), and in philosophy of language. The language contributes to express, as well as to create, the identity. The study will point out how language could be connected to identity, and if/how the whole structure of language could be considered as a symbol (isation) of the personal, cultural, and national identities.

Keywords: language, philosophy of language, semiotics, Jungian theory, theory of symbol.

Biographical note :

Matejka Grgic born in Ljubljana (Slovenia), 1974. Studied Philosophy at the University of Trieste (Italy), Master in Theory of Discourse, and Graduate study in Semiotics (Ljubljana). PhD (2005) thesis on Neoplatonic theory of symbols. Since 2006, an Assistant Professor at the University of Nova Gorica (Slovenia). She has collaborated with several universities in Slovenia (U. of Ljubljana, U. of Primorska, ISH) and in Italy (U. of Trieste, U. of Udine) at different study programmes and research projects.


Griffith, Honor

Beyond the Kantian/ Post-Kantian Divide

The divide in contemporary society between the dominant scientific norm and emerging grass roots movements which espouse values such as connectivity, holism, and the non-rational parallels the rift that sometimes occurs within the Jungian community between the developmental school with its emphasis on aetiology, and the archetypal school with its preoccupation with anima mundi. This split reflects the tension between Jung’s early embrace of a Kantian philosophy, which insists that all knowledge is mediated through psyche, and his experience of such phenomena as the world as other. This paper argues that new research in disciplines such as neurobiology and quantum physics has the potential for healing that split. In particular, Mindell builds on Jung’s groundbreaking work with Pauli by providing insightful analogies between quantum physics and depth psychology, both of which are forced to reckon with subjective experience and the non-rational within a scientific paradigm.

Keywords: depth psychology, neurobiology, quantum physics, Kantian/ Unus Mundus split

Biographical note :

Honor Griffith, PhD, is a Jungian psychotherapist in private practice in British Columbia, Canada. She is author of ‘Evoking the Embodied Image: Jung in the Age of the Brain’ in Dreaming the Myth Onwards (ed. L. Huskinson, 2008), and of various published articles and book reviews. She is on the PhD advisor list for Pacifica Graduate Institute.


Groff, Maja

Hopeful Trends in Canadian Political Culture: A Positively "Complexified" Nation State?

Is there hope for more authentic and conscious cultures of national identity? Themes in the Canadian polity evidence some positive trends. Canada possesses a young constitution, "repatriated" by a conscious gradualist process of distancing from the former parent nation, Great Britain, and contains overt commitments to national multiculturalism. The Canadian constitution as an evolving "Living Tree" is a central organic metaphor used in constitutional interpretation. Major Canadian artists have meaningfully linked Canadian identity to an "idea of North" (that is sparsely peopled and in many ways anti-modern), and have taken the Canadian natural landscape as a central inspiration, thus allowing the territory itself to speak, rather than speaking for the territory, as is the case with structured nationalistic projects. Finally, legal and negotiation processes occurring with "First Nations" groups of Canada, have, among other things, led to the historic admission of oral/mythological narrative evidence into the mainstream justice system.

Keywords: national culture, constitutionalism, aboriginal peoples, Canada, national landscapes, mythological narrative

Biographical note :

Groff, Maja, B.C.L. and LL.B. McGill University, Faculty of Law (2007), with Great Distinction. M.Sc. Social Anthropology, Oxford University (2004), with Distinction. A.B. Folklore and Mythology, Harvard University (2001), Honor's, Magna cum Laude.


Gros, Henry

Encountering symbolic aspects of the smart-phone

New technological artefacts as the smart-phone are powerful tools, which may enhance some human performance, leaving others underdeveloped. They can favour connexion, but on the other hand also regression or narcissistic behaviour. Introducing such medial object like the smart-phone in CG Jung’s transfer /counter-transfer diagram shows how the projected, “virtual” object may lead to a dissociated relation between two individuals. Hermes, the messenger, god of merchants and thieves, also guiding the souls, is an archetypal image, that matches many projected properties of such virtual objects. His abilities as mediator may be found in the use of smart-phones as transitional objects. On the other end there are also his trickster qualities found in the cyber-world. Becoming aware of all these symbolic aspects may develop our ability to recognise and handle the power and fascination of this new technologies. They may then become a transitional space toward development, individuation and relatedness.

Keywords: Smart-Phone, symbol, Hermes, myth, technological object, virtual relation

Biographical note :

Henry Gros (1948) did a PhD at ETH. He worked first as a development engineer, later as a manager of an enterprise in environment technology. In the mid nineties he started independent activities as consultant and coach later as a Jungian analyst. He lives in Geneva working also in Zurich.


Gudaite, Grazina and Ruksaite, Goda

The Use of Symbols in Trauma Healing Process

Trauma healing process and development of relationship network in long term therapy was the main subject of our research. As suppressed trauma experience expresses itself in different symbolic forms focus of our investigation was directed to the deeper understanding of the dreams which appeared in different stages of therapy. Case analysis of long term therapy based on principles of qualitative research showed, that symbols are reliable agents in remembering and holding trauma experience processes. They help to foresee new possibilities for further development of inner identity. Repeated symbols and their modifications show the changes of Ego identification process thus opening the new ways of inner and outer relationship and could be important criterion for the effectiveness of psychotherapy.

Keywords: trauma healing, symbol, ego identity, ego relationship