Panel – Analytical Psychology in Barcelona and the World: Perspectives and Prospectives


Beverley Zabriskie
(Congress Program Chair) New York, USA
Jungian Psychoanalytic Association

When it fulfills its purpose, an IAAP Congress sharpens our focus and intensifies our curiosity. The issues addressed in our triennial meetings impact our discourse, our curriculum, and publications during and beyond the three years until the next meeting.

Thanks to the speakers’ presentations and the discussions from the floor, the intentions for this Sixteenth IAAP Congress have been well realized. Our formal and informal exchanges have brought us to edges of new experience, and moved us beyond the states of mind of only days ago. As we emerge with new considerations and insights, the Congress is nearly a memory. As a memory, it can already be recalled, sorted through, and brought to bear as we move forward.

Before we disperse, we gather for a retrospective of the Congress, and prospectives on the current and future state of Analytical Psychology. I have one glimpse into the states of mind of our membership gleaned from the 250 proposals submitted in 2002 for this week in Barcelona. I am joined by colleagues who will offer views on the state of our affairs in countries and continents far from Barcelona.

On this cusp, I am pleased to be with analysts from Africa, South America, and Asia: Astrid Berg from South Africa, Pablo Gelsi from Uruguay, and Kazuhiko Higuchi from Japan. We will each introduce ourselves by retracing our particular paths toward becoming Jungian analysts, as our professional histories are threads in the fabric of Analytical Psychology in our respective eras and parts of the world.

I moved to Zurich with Philip Zabriskie in February of 1969, not quite eight years after Jung’s death. We arrived during James Hillman’s last week as director of training at the Zurich Institute. Jung’s nephew, Franz Riklin, was president of the Curatorium. Most of the grand old names among Jungian analysts were still alive and definitely kicking.

In our first months, we met many who have remained colleagues and friends through the years, including Murray Stein, who was our German teacher! After completing the Propadeuticum during four years in Zurich, I continued training in New York and graduated from the New York Jung Institute. As it is a rich opportunity to study in different training programs, I hope such training experiences can be made available to current and future candidates.

For twenty-three years after graduation, I taught as a member of the faculty of the New York Institute until last year, when I became a founding member of the second membership and training group in New York, the Jungian Psychoanalytic Association.

In those olden days in Zurich, Jung was often quoted as saying that to be balanced, analysts needed involvement in their own creative work. Otherwise, the need to create would be displaced onto analysands, whom we would try to “create” in our own likeness.

I am glad to report there is a swell of commitment to creativity, which bodes well for our collective life and our patients’ safety from our need to fashion and shape them. The members of the Program Committee received and read 250 proposals. As chair, I interacted with some 200 colleagues in assembling this week’s meetings. The number and quality of the proposals allowed the Program Committee to assemble a forum that captures the currents in Analytical Psychology during these early years of an already distressed century and millennium.

Jung wrote of the instinct to reflect and to create. This instinct may become more acute in perilous times. Individuals everywhere have always faced crises of survival of body and transgressions of soul. Populations of most parts of the world have long dealt with deadly diseases and death-dealing terror and oppression. And now, in addition, we are in a moment of history when it seems the entire globe is fraught, on a brutal edge of gross projection, regression, and compulsions toward extinction.

The proposals and presentations embraced a wide variety of relevant themes. The plenary papers include an evocation of the imagistic wisdom of the alchemical tradition, insights gained from work with children in different cultures and settings, a contemporary contextualization of the theory of synchronicity, the demands for adequate treatment of groups caught in geo-political conflicts, and the challenges of professional interaction with the largest social issues.

In his introduction to Mysterium Coniunctionis, Jung wrote that his theories would need to be grounded in brain research if they were to endure. As you can see from our program, we had many proposals on depth psychology and the findings of the neurosciences. Some referred to neurobiology and the evolutionary theories of the Darwinian tradition. The physiological dynamics of mind, memory and imagination were also addressed. Throughout the week, we have heard how current findings in neuroscience, about what Wolfgang Pauli termed the “background physics of the brain,” are reinforcing the premises of our work, including those which emerged from the seemingly esoteric traditions to which Jung referred. For instance, both the inter-subjective bases of attachment theory and the premises of the complexity theory of emergence have antecedents in the intuitive models of the coniunctio.

There were many proposals on analytic work with children and how it contributes to the analysis of adults. As always, there were many fine proposals on the place of the body in analytic work and imagination. I thank Joan Chodorow for all her special efforts in co-ordinating these programs.

We had attractive proposals about art, artists, and architecture as expressions of life, its eros and thanatos. We had slated several programs about music. We received fewer proposals on literature. I would say that compared to past Congresses, papers were less focused on fairy tales and mythologies, although other submissions examined the dynamics of subjectivity and narrative in analytic practice.

The IAAP panels represented the concerns of our membership about ethics, about training, about our place in the Academy, and research. Through the meetings for the developing groups, they also brought our attention to the challenges of applying analytical psychology in places and populations with experience apart from the European origins of our theory, and yet shares the common and archetypal bases of the human “experiment.”

In Cambridge, we allowed ourselves to indulge in millennium fantasies. In contrast, there were multiple proposals for this Congress that addressed void states, black holes, hesitation, doubt, nothingness, dying, death. There was a focus in Cambridge on the distinctions between the Jungian and psychoanalytic traditions, our differences and commonalities. We appear to have moved on, with more concern on furthering our particular theory and practice in relation to the dynamics of the individual and collective psyche.

I would say, with some satisfaction, that the submissions for this Congress indicate that we have come of a certain age, a time of “getting over” and beyond ourselves. We are turning our practiced eyes and reflective minds to how our knowledge, our expertise, and hopefully our wisdom may be applied both to the stabilization of the inner life and the pressing issues of a world in dis-equilibrium.

Jung himself often addressed larger historical issues, although as we now know, his pronouncements sometimes lacked right instinct and good judgment. Many submissions matched Jung’s wider interests, but from original and innovative perspectives. Whether they addressed the verbal, visual, or bodily aspects of practice, the topics and themes were often of a collective and cultural nature: of children, families and groups in crisis, of individuals responding and reacting to natural and political catastrophes.

This Congress has also showcased the images and scholarly notes of the ARAS collection, the fertilization of Jungian thought through the intellectual tradition of Eranos, the creative approach to the Jung-Spielrein relationship as perceived by film director Elisabeth Márton, and the possibilities of future publications of Jung’s works as described by the general editor of the Philemon Foundation, Sonu Shamadasani.

Our responsive creativity as an analytic association has provided us with a solid, evocative, and far-reaching program. Thank you all for the largesse and excellence of your contributions to this Congress and our continuing, common enterprise of Analytical Psychology.

The Relevance and Future of Analytical Psychology in South Africa

Astrid Berg
Cape Town, South Africa
South African Association of Jungian Analysts

Analytical psychology in South Africa faces challenges that are similar to elsewhere in the world where it is being practiced; however, being in Africa does mean living at the interface of different cultures, of beauty, wealth as well as devastating diseases and poverty.

The HIV/Aids pandemic is one which is so overwhelming that many of us (and I speak for myself here) do not actually want to engage with it. A virus which is acquired through that which should create life, which infects the newborn baby and which kills the parents of older children through a debilitating disease process – what inversion of the life force, what punishment of the innocent! When five-year old HIV-positive orphans spontaneously play at being crucified, one has to ask: Is this a new version of an old story, an ancient question for a modern Job? What is the question and what is it that needs to be made conscious? While science and medicine are trying to deal with causes and treatment, we have not begun thinking about it in a psychologically deeper and broader sense. Analytical psychology may provide some theoretical tools towards assisting us to give meaning to this plague.

Yet, despite this and within all of this, there is an enormous pool of resilience in Africa, providing all with many opportunities to be creative, constructive and enthusiastic.

One of the opportunities I feel enthusiastic about is the privilege we have of being in such close contact with peoples of others cultures. African cultures are not a religion, and hence are not vulnerable to fundamentalism. They are a Weltanschauung, a way of being in the world, which originates in the cultural unconscious and conscious of its people.

While Africa has learnt and is continuing to learn from European Enlightenment, it too frequently is seen as a one-way process; that “they” have to learn from us. I wish to turn this around, and rather ask the question: what can analytical psychology discover from the way of being in Africa? Could we conceive of learning something from the “dark” continent?

We may ask why we should want to observe and learn about other ways of being. Is the striving of most parts of the globe not towards individual achievement and comfort, economic empowerment, a Westminster style democracy, objective science and evidence-based medicine? That is what is being aimed for, and, in a way, rightly so, as with this has come many of human kind’s most remarkable accomplishments. However, there is a serious question of what is happening to the human psyche. Is it not in danger of losing its grounded-ness? I believe that there is something about Africa, something in the African soil and its people that could contribute to the global evolution of human consciousness and true well-being.

Both psycho-analysis and analytical psychology have their origins in western tradition of study and reflection. It is about the analysis of the mind, the building up of a theoretical discourse around its structure and functioning. With his extensive knowledge of the humanities, Jung gathered the information accumulated by many scholars, and, together with his wide clinical experience, came to articulate a psychological model which expanded upon Freud’s naming of the personal unconscious as a primary motivator in human living.

There are two areas, a task and an invitation, I would see as a challenge to analytical psychology in my home country. I can mention them only briefly here:

The first, the task, has to do with the struggle between the individual and the collective, one which is poignantly seen in many different forms in our consulting rooms when dealing with our patients of black African origin. The wish to strive towards individual fulfilment is often threatened by demands from the family and community. This can take many forms, from concrete sharing of money to withholding family consent to marriage. These struggles have a particular intensity and can involve a suffering which I have not encountered in my European patients. The theoretical underpinnings of analytical psychology which link the individual with the collective provide a framework within which this observed dilemma in modern Africa can be deeply understood and appreciated.

The second area, the invitation, is that in traditional Africa, psyche is lived, not theorised about. The mind-body split is a western notion. Psyche is experienced in dreams which often call for action; it is manifest in daily happenings which to the western mind would only be chance. As a consequence, or as part of this, traditional rituals are practised in contemporary South Africa by the majority of its peoples, and I hope they continue to be practised. Vera Bührmann documented these in her ground-breaking work many years ago, and what she found then still holds today: the effect the rituals have on mental health is immeasurable. Time does not allow me to expand on this here, but only to point out that as western orientated people and analysts we can heed the seriousness with which these rituals are conducted: the attention to detail; the complete and whole participation of the individual and his/her community; the time, energy and money that are devoted to this; the attitude of respect that permeates the whole process. It is the psyche outside or, in addition to, the personal equation which is seen in action. The notion of the objective psyche places analytical psychology in a unique position to truly meet this aspect of the way of being of many of the peoples in Africa.

We cannot, and indeed we should not imitate what belongs to another culture, but we can learn from it, and take into ourselves its essence, because what is happening in the other is, or can also happen in us – what is being expressed is universally human, the collective conscious and unconscious, parts of which we, in western culture, may have lost touch with. But there are also the shadow aspects of culture – when it is used as a defence, as an excuse for power and exploitation. What differentiates deep human strivings and psychic structures, the need for psychic order, from personal motives of gain? If we want to research further about what some of the universal truths might be, about what we, in all cultures, may be in the process of forfeiting, we have a possibility in South Africa to contribute to this.

The relevance of analytical psychology is at this edge of witnessing and experiencing the struggle between the modern individual and the values of the old collective. Our task is to hold the tension of these opposites for those we come into contact with in our professional as well as personal lives. When Jung ‘discovered’ the collective unconscious he and his patients used materials from mythology to amplify what was stirred up in the individual. It was a mostly intellectual, neocortical, modern European endeavour. In African tradition psyche emanates in large part from the body, the vegetative system, as well as from a strong, very present community life. In South Africa we have an unequalled opportunity to witness this and to partake in the rapid transition into modernity of very old cultures; we can facilitate the separation and individuation of our patients and fellow citizens. However, it is also our duty and calling, as analytical psychologists, to listen carefully and to make conscious, thereby giving value to the immense richness contained within the true cultural foundations of Africa, and thus honour the collective layers of our common human existence.

How to see Through to the Coming Future?

Kazuhiko Higuchi
Kyoto, Japan
Association of Jungian Analysts of Japan

Before I begin reflections on the various views and prospects of analytical psychology for the future, I would be glad to share with you some of what is occurring in our field in Japan.

Since our Association of Jungian Analysts, Japan (AJAJ) was approved for membership in the IAAP during the 15th Congress at Cambridge in 2001, we have formally begun our work as a national institute. In the beginning we had twenty-four analysts. Today, our membership has increased to twenty-six. Our training program for analysts has two tiers. The first is a two-year theoretical training and the second, also for two years, includes the control stage training and practice necessary for certification. We have received several candidates who have completed the first two years at the C.G. Jung Institute in Zurich and have accepted them into our program to continue their training. We welcome candidates from any approved Jungian Institute and our training committee and executive board evaluates them in the same way as we do our national candidates.

One characteristic specific to our training program is that we are very concerned with the tradition of Eastern cultural thought that originated with Dr. Jung. It is important for us, as Jungian analysts working in Asian/Oriental cultures, to understand our own Eastern history of thought as well as to gain knowledge of the ways of thinking particular to other cultures. With this in mind, we have designed basic lecture courses for candidates at various levels of education and development as well as assisting them in their own continuing personal analysis. Private and group supervision and control stage training is available to candidates in each spring and autumn semester.

At present, we have four candidates, in Kyoto and Tokyo, who are pursuing the second two years of training. It is our aim to develop training opportunities equally in those two central cities. There are also many interested persons who are affiliated with our institute and attend lectures regularly. Currently, there are approximately three hundred persons who are participating in the activities of our institute in various ways. We look forward to welcoming additional well-trained candidates from abroad, and we encourage our own students to study in foreign institutes where they have opportunities to receive training and personal analysis in a non-native language before their certification as analysts.

Since the beginning of our formal program, we have welcomed many distinguished scholars from various counties as our guest speakers, sometimes as our trainers, including such well known personalities among us: Stein, Zoja, Giegerich, Miller, Hillman, Speigelman, Guggenbühl- Craig, Kast, Kugler, Bosnak, and Rosen. We hope to continue our valuable relationship with international Jungian analysts and the world’s Jungian Institutes.

Another somewhat unique characteristic of our association is that we have very close ties with many universities in Japan that offer degrees in clinical psychology. In our country, Jungian psychology has had a strong impact on the formulation of the curriculum for clinical psychological studies. Universities such as Kyoto University, Kyoto Bunkyo University, Konan University, Toyo Eiwa University, and many others have strong Jungian educational programs for their clinical psychology studies. This is due to the leadership of Dr. Hayao Kawai who, after his return from his studies in Zurich in 1965, actively promoted Dr. Jung’s work here in Japan. Dr. Kawai now holds the office of Cabinet Minister/commissioner in the Agency of Cultural Affairs of the Japanese Government, and is continuing to encourage depth psychology training in the national and private university systems and for the general population. Our Jungian Institute has also worked diligently in this arena and the academic community has been very receptive and has validated our efforts, the quality of our students, and our curriculum for perspective clinicians. Japanese Jungian psychology will develop in the university setting as well as within the educational programs of our institute. The Japanese universities and the Japanese Jungian Institute will continue to assist and support one another and, I feel, this model may be of value for possible future development in the extended world community as well.

When we look to our future, it is difficult to imagine what will come to us as an international organization. It seems we cannot even know what will occur tomorrow, especially since the attack on the World Trade Center in New York on September 11, 2001. Do you remember that, in Cambridge, we planned to have the next conference in New York? I firmly supported that decision. Yet, here we are in Barcelona and this year’s congress is nearly finished. We live in a very unpredictable world. This is also true of our psychic world(s). I feel that such unexpected incidents and changes open new vistas or perspectives for each of us.

In considering the word perspective, we know it has to do with optics or vision. It is a looking through to the future. I would like to point out that we are now, more and more, looking through toward a wider space and time span. We are not looking only with the limited eyes of exclusively western cultural views. I strongly feel that we needed to have a wider view of humankind. You know that pro means forward and spect means to look. So, looking forward is what provides a prospective perspective! Perspective has to do with optics/vision, the science of optics, or looking through. I hope that the IAAP is coming into a more far-reaching perspective through embracing a different kind of vision. I feel it is important, when looking to the future, to use not only our highly placed physical eyes in our heads, but also to foster a lower viewpoint that comes from the level of the belly. This is the location of our invisible eyes.

There is no safe place for us in this world. We are living in war-like conditions. It is clear that the atomic bomb, if it remains a contained piece of metal, is harmless enough. However, if someone wants to push the button, it becomes a incalculable danger. We need to know more and more about the human psyche, especially the dark side of our human desire. This darkness may come from our lack of imagination, which creates a severe danger for us. For me, death is a lack of imagination – our human imagination, which give us the freedom to live and maintain life in our world. How can we sustain our planetary society? How can we endanger our future society? Our world is shrinking and the conditions need us to use our imagination more and more fully.

During the days of this congress, I have observed some things with my body belly-eyes. We Orientals sometimes prefer to use the eyes in our bellies. Let me tell you some of what I have seen with those eyes. Firstly, there is a great diversity in the understanding of Jung’s psychology among us. In some ways, this is good. It means there is a great richness in our associations. Yet, it is important to consider whether this diversity creates more or less imagination and imaginary activities in our midst. As to the future of the IAAP, I would stress the importance of greater and more effective education for the students of our institutes, hopefully within the academic setting. Of course, personal analysis and psychic exploration is of paramount importance but we are very concerned for the many young persons who are seriously searching for their own identities. What is the self and the Self in each individual life? Such a search needs to be supported on many levels. We must also realize that the universities in our world are changing radically. The modern systems are increasingly flexible and are very open to Jungian understanding of psyche and for both psychological and spiritual development in their lives.

The second thing I have observed with the eyes in my belly is that, as a Jungian who has lived many years in the East, I feel the importance of learning to dwell together on our small planet Earth through the exercising of restraint and an awareness of limitations. This is an eastern attitude and is different from the unlimited desires of the typical western ego. On this point, we may be able to understand more from exploring the religious attitudes of Buddhism and Shinto, and being attentive to their wisdom in these days.

In concluding my remarks, I would like to present some passages from the Chinese classic known as the Book of Changes or the I Ching. My quotes are from Richard Whilhem’s translation.

These are passages from the first hexagram – The Creative.

From the Image:

“The movement of heaven is full of power, thus the superior man makes himself strong and untiring.»
(Vol. 1, p. 5)

The Second is from Hexagram 4 – Youthful Folly.

From the Judgment:

“At the first oracle I inform him,
If he asks two or three times, it is importunity.
If he importunes, I give him no information.
Perseverance furthers.” (Vol. 1, p. 40)

I feel this means that it is necessary to have the correct attitude toward the psyche/unconscious. If your attitude is correct, the needed guidance will manifest.

The third is from Hexagram 28 – Preponderance of the Great.

From the Image:

“The lake rises above the trees:
The image of preponderance of the Great.
Thus the superior man, when he stands alone,
Is unconcerned,
And if he has to renounce the world,
He is undaunted.” (Vol. 1, p. 118)

Let me conclude in this way. Again, I cannot say the future. Yet, I wanted to share with you my thoughts and feelings about this congress. It makes me happy if I have given you a wider and deeper perspective for the future through the vision you can see through the eyes of your bellies. Thank you for hearing me.


The I Ching, or Book of Changes, translated by Richard Wilhelm, rendered into English by Cary F. Baynes, foreword by C.G. Jung, Vols. 1 and 2, Bollingen Series XlX, Pantheon Books, Inc., New York, 1950.

Analytical Psychology in Barcelona and the World: Perspectives and Prospectives

Pablo Gelsi
Montevideo, Uruguay
Sociedad Uruguay de Psicologia Analitica

Beverly [Zabriskie] nos pidió que nos presentáramos, explicando el modo como nos habíamos tornado analistas junguianos, antes de hablar sobre algunos aspectos relevantes de la realidad, en mi caso de Latinoamérica, y eso haré a continuación.

Comencé leyendo a Jung gracias a un sacerdote católico que incluía la lectura de la obra de Jung en su trabajo de dirección espiritual. Quiero contarles que en Latinoamérica se lee a Jung desde los años 50 del siglo pasado a través de la influencia de la psiquiatra Nise da Silveira en Brasil y del fundador de la editorial Paidos en Argentina, que comenzó a traducir al español la obra de Jung. Pero mi entrenamiento más formal comienza en el año 1986 cuando empiezo mi análisis con el Dr. Carlos Byington y con la Dra. Irací Galias de San Pablo, Brasil. Durante seis años viajamos a Brasil con dos de mis colegas uruguayos Pilar Ämézaga y Mario Saiz como trainnees en la Sociedad Brasilera de Psicología Analítica. En 1992 fui aceptado como analista en el congreso de Chicago. En 1994 conscientes de que el esfuerzo de viajar al exterior no sería imitado por otras personas, empezamos a ofrecer el primer programa de estudios de Postgrado y de Master en Psicología Analítica que se realizó en el mundo, Se dictó en la Universidad Católica del Uruguay y que continúa ininterrumpidamente hasta hoy día.

En el 2003 se comienza a dictar el mismo programa de Postgrado en la Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez. en Chile.

Actualmente trabajo como analista en práctica privada en Montevideo y soy el Decano de la Facultad de Psicología de la Universidad Católica del Uruguay.

En 1992 fundamos los tres analistas que existían en Uruguay, la Fundación C.G. Jung de Uruguay y después la Sociedad Uruguaya de Psicología Analítica, cuando otros tres egresados del programa de Postgrado de la Universidad Católica, fueron admitidos como analistas por la Asociación Internacional.

Quiero destacar aquí que nosotros en Uruguay tuvimos el primer lugar un apoyo unánime y ferviente de los colegas brasileros y en una segunda instancia de la IAAP fundamentalmente a través de Ian Baker, James Jarret, Murray Stein y de Luigi Zoja. También de Mario Jacobi y de Joan Chodorow, todos los cuales nos visitaron amorosamente y con gran esfuerzo personal, apertura e interés.

Uno de los primeros temas que quiero destacar es esta cooperación que ha habido en Latinoamérica a partir de nuestros colegas brasileros, cuya ayuda ferviente y desinteresada ayudó a fundar sociedades y grupos de desarrollo en Uruguay, Argentina y Chile. Antes de que la IAAP acudiera en nuestra ayuda ellos hicieron posible el desarrollo de nuestras agrupaciones y posibilitaron la formación profesional y académica en Psicología Analítica en el sur de nuestra región. Posteriormente fue muy importante, y lo es actualmente, el apoyo de la IAAP para que se consolidaran agrupaciones en éstos países.

La realidad en el norte de Latinoamérica ha estado más ligada al apoyo prestado por la IAAP y a sociedades e individuos de los Estados Unidos los, cuales también han contribuido generosamente al establecimiento de sociedades y grupos en países como Ecuador, Venezuela y Méjico.

El segundo punto que quiero destacar es que aún cuando los orígenes y los procesos de creación de los distintos grupos y sociedades pueden haber sido disímiles, el Primer Congreso de Psicología Junguiana que se realizó en Punta del Este, Uruguay en 1978 nos permitió experimentar la realidad de una identidad común entre los grupos e individuos que componen la realidad Latinoamericana. Fue un congreso cuyo tema fue justamente la identidad latinoamericana que reunió a personas de Brasil, Argentina, Chile, Venezuela, Méjico y Uruguay. Muchos de nosotros nos conocimos ahí por primera vez y desde entonces hemos reconocido que nos une, mucho más allá de las diferencias, un sentimiento de pertenencia a una cultura común más amplia que aquella que se da en nuestros países de origen. Identidad que nos permite reconocernos, querernos y actuar mancomunados por una similar visión de mundo dentro de la identidad más amplia que es la Asociación Internacional.

A través de tres congresos latinoamericanos hemos consolidado nuestros vínculos y hacer realidad una vinculación institucional sólida a través del Comité Latinoamericano de Psicología Analítica. Hicimos todo esto que consideramos como una etapa fundamental en la construcción de nuestra identidad latinoamericana sin perder de vista nuestro sentido de pertenencia a la asociación internacional de la cual hoy nos sentimos como miembros plenos, prueba de lo cual es mi presencia en este plenario.

No me quiero detener aquí, por que éste es un día de júbilo y celebración, en las múltiples dificultades económicas y políticas que hemos vivido y estamos viviendo en nuestros respectivos países. Estas dificultades han sido escollos en la integración y en la circulación de personas entre estos países. Pero que afortunadamente, y siguiendo las características del proceso de individuación latinoamericano, no han obstaculizado completamente el intercambio entre nosotros. Entiendo que éste es un proceso incipiente, que si bien ya ha dado muchos frutos en el pasado todavía tiene mucho para brindar y que necesita ante todo de la interacción de toda la comunidad junguiana en el mundo. Latinoamérica puede ser un ejemplo de intercambio donde las distancias, las dificultades económicas e incluso diferencias culturales, no han impedido la interacción, el crecimiento y transformación de individuos y grupos que apuntan a una misma causa que este caso se trata de la difusión del pensamiento de Jung.

Hay un tercer y último aspecto que quiero destacar respecto de la realidad de la Psicología Analítica en Latinoamérica: la presencia de junguianos en la Academia, en la Universidad. Les he hablado de cuál ha sido la experiencia a este respecto en Uruguay, pero un relevamiento entre los grupos y sociedades revela que una enorme cantidad de sus miembros han estado o están actualmente vinculados a Universidades en América Latina.

Esto ha resultado fundamental en la difusión de la Psicología Analítica en los medios profesionales y en la cultura de los distintos países. Cabe aquí hacerse la pregunta de por qué esto ha sido así. Una respuesta simple pero algo limitada estaría dada por el hecho de que el mundo científico requiere que la Psicología sea una ciencia de la academia. La incorporación del nuevo saber se realiza en buena medida en las Universidades y la formación profesional requiere formación en disciplinas científicas.

Pero quizás si atendemos al modo cómo surgieron las universidades y lo que el término Universidad significa, quizás entendamos un poco más la inclinación de tantos junguianos latinoamericanos a vincularse con la academia. El padre Antonio Borrero, Jesuita colombiano y experto internacional en el tema de la Universidad, en un seminario que dictara en el año 2003 en la Universidad Católica del Uruguay rastreaba históricamente los orígenes de la institución universidad. Mostraba cómo en su origen la Universidad deriva de lo que se denominaban los Studium medievales antes de que se formara la primera Universidad, la Universidad de Bolonia. Existían los studium que eran gremios en el sentido medieval, que agrupaban estudiantes y profesores en torno a una profesión o un oficio que era el saber. Lo que agrupaba a éstos profesores y estudiantes era la pasión por el saber. Studium era entonces un oficio y a la vez una motivación que daba el sentido último de su accionar, el amor al saber. Posteriormente esta palabra studium se incorporó como aquello que se estudiaba, la curricula y que en aquel entonces incluía todo el saber que era necesario saber: retórica, música, filosofía, teología. … Era el saber que las instituciones de enseñanza que posteriormente serían universitarias brindaban a los estudiantes, todo el saber conocido, el saber universal que tenía como misión proporcionar lo que era entonces proporcionar lo que era entonces el saber universal. La versación en el todo saber, la Universitas.

En la Edad Media de esa aspiración o amor por el saber dio paso a una aspiración a recoger en el ámbito universitario todo el saber conocido. Posteriormente empezó a abrirse paso en la curricula la incorporación de otros saberes como la medicina, el derecho, la arquitectura, empezaron a aparecer las especializaciones y una especie de fragmentación de ese saber universal que hoy día es imposible de dominar por cualquier individuo. Pero este ideal de recoger, enseñar todo el saber y crear el nuevo sigue estando vivo en la Universidad como institución.

En América Latina muchos analistas y personas convencidas de la Psicología Analítica han buscado incorporarse a éstas instituciones, las Universidades en las cuales la investigación y la búsqueda del saber y de la creación de conocimiento son su misión esencial. Están intentando crear las condiciones para que se investigue en Psicología Analítica y también para que se creen los puentes entre la Psicología Analítica y otras disciplinas tanto dentro de la Psicología como con disciplinas afines. Es por esto que el próximo Congreso Latinoamericano de Psicología Junguiana, el cuarto, tiene como tema la Psicopatología, la Psicoterapia y la Neurociencia. En él queremos intercambiar entre nosotros y aquellos miembros de la asociación internacional que deseen asistir algunos resultados de la experiencia que hemos recogido en la investigación y en la práctica analítica de éste propósito de integración entre disciplinas.

Será nuevamente en Punta del Este, Uruguay, ya que los dos anteriores se realizaron en Rio de Janeiro y Bahía, en Brasil, y será en setiembre del 2006. Los invitamos a venir. Estoy seguro que encontrarán en este encuentro latinoamericano toda la hospitalidad y calidez latina junto con la seriedad y profesionalismo que todos nos merecemos. Les digo entonces, hasta pronto y gracias por escucharme.